Biografi Wright Bersaudara – Penemu Pesawat Terbang

Biografi Wright Bersaudara – Penemu Pesawat Terbang

Wright Bersaudara 1871 – 1912 Pesawat Terbang Wright bersaudara (Wright brothers), Orville (19 Agustus 1871 – 30 January 1948) dan Wilbur (16 April 1867 – 30 May 1912) adalah dua orang Amerika yang dicatat sebagai penemu pesawat terbang karena mereka berhasil membangun pesawat terbang yang pertama kali berhasil diterbangkan dan dikendalikan oleh manusia pada tanggal 17 Desember 1903. Dua tahun setelah penemuan mereka, kedua bersaudara tersebut mengembangkan ‘mesin terbang’ mereka ke bentuk pesawat terbang yang memakai sayap yang seperti sekarang kita kenal.

Walaupun mereka bukan orang yang pertama membuat pesawat percobaan atau experiment, Wright bersaudara adalah orang yang pertama menemukan kendali pesawat sehingga pesawat terbang dengan sayap yang terpasang kaku bisa dikendalikan. Terobosan yang paling besar adalah penemuan ‘kontrol tiga sumbu’ yang digunakan oleh semua pesawat terbang yang sekarang. Mereka memperoleh keahlian mekanik tersebut dari bekerja di toko mereka yang penuh dengan mesin cetak, sepeda, motor dan mesin lainnya. Dari sepeda mereka mendapat gagasan bahwa pesawat terbang yang tidak stabil dapat dikendalikan dengan latihan.
Wright bersaudara adalah dua dari tujuh orang bersaudara. Di sekolah dasar, Orville pernah dikeluarkan dari sekolah. Tahun 1878, ayah mereka membelikan ‘helikopter’ mainan untuk dua anak mereka yang termuda tersebut. Mainan itu dibuat dari bambu dan karet untuk memutar baling-baling nya. Wilbur dan Orville memainkannya hingga rusak, kemudian membuat mainan tersebut sendiri, mereka mengaku bahwa pengalaman brmain dengan helikopter bambu menjadi sumber bagi ketertarikan mereka terhadap mesin yang bisa

terbang.

Secara umum mereka dihargai atas desain dan perancangan pesawat terbang efektif pertama, dan membuat penerbangan terkendali pertama menggunakan pesawat terbang bermesin yang lebih berat daripada udara, bersama dengan pendirian tonggak sejarah lainnya dalam bidang era dirgantara. Kedua kakak beradik itu pada awalnya mengelola sebuah toko di Dayton, Ohio. Toko tersebut menjual dan memperbaiki sepeda motor. Mereka mulai mempelajari masalah penerbangan pada tahun 1889. Kemudian mereka mulai membuat tiga pesawat terbang layang bersayap kembar. Ketiganya dites di pantai Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Pesawat yang ketiga telah diujinya sebanyak 1000 kali penerbangan dan ternyata berhasil dengan sukses. Kemudian mereka membuat mesin motor ringan. Mesin tersebut di pasang di pesawatnya yang keempat, yang dinamakannya Wright Flyer.

Pada pukul 9.30 pagi (9.30 WIB malam) dalam cuaca dingin yang mendung pada tanggal 17 Desember 1903, Wright Bersaudara menerbangkan untuk pertama kalinya pesawat udara berkendali sejauh empat mil di dekat wilayah berbukit pasir di Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Mereka menyaksikan pesawat Wright Flyer dikemudikan oleh Orville, mengangkasa selama 12 detik. Kemudia pesara tersebut turun kembali setelah mencapai 37 meter dari tanah. Penerbangan tersebut merupakan penerbangan pesawat yang pertama dalam sejarah. Pesawat tersebut pada awalnya dinamai Wright Flyer, tetapi sekarang lebih populer dengan nama “Kitty Hawk”. Pesawat Flyer yang asli kini terdapat di Museum Dirgantara di Washington DC,Amerika Serikat.

ref : http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wright_Bersaudara
http://www.perpus.wima.ac.id/etcetera.php?div=14&id=3

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THOMAS EDISON

A Brief Biography of Thomas Edison

Thomas Edison as a young man.Thomas Edison.

NPS Photo

 

People often say Edison was a genius. He answered, “Genius is hard work, stick-to-it-iveness, and common sense.”

Thomas Alva Edison was born February 11, 1847 in Milan, Ohio (pronounced MY-lan). In 1854, when he was seven, the family moved to Michigan, where Edison spent the rest of his childhood.

“Al,” as he was called as a boy, went to school only a short time. He did so poorly that his mother, a former teacher, taught her son at home. Al learned to love reading, a habit he kept for the rest of his life. He also liked to make experiments in the basement.

Al not only played hard, but also worked hard. At the age of 12 he sold fruit, snacks and newspapers on a train as a “news butcher.” (Trains were the newest way to travel, cutting through the American wilderness.) He even printed his own newspaper, the Grand Trunk Herald, on a moving train.

At 15, Al roamed the country as a “tramp telegrapher.” Using a kind of alphabet called Morse Code, he sent and received messages over the telegraph. Even though he was already losing his hearing, he could still hear the clicks of the telegraph. In the next seven years he moved over a dozen times, often working all night, taking messages for trains and even for the Union Army during the Civil War. In his spare time, he took things apart to see how they worked. Finally, he decided to invent things himself.

After the failure of his first invention, the electric vote recorder, Edison moved to New York City. There he improved the way the stock ticker worked. This was his big break. By 1870 his company was manufacturing his stock ticker in Newark, New Jersey. He also improved the telegraph, making it send up to four messages at once.During this time he married his first wife, Mary Stilwell, on Christmas Day, 1871. They had three children — Marion, Thomas, Jr., and William. Wanting a quieter spot to do more inventing, Edison moved from Newark to Menlo Park, New Jersey, in 1876. There he built his most famous laboratory.

He was not alone in Menlo Park. Edison hired “muckers” to help him out. These “muckers” came from all over the world to make their fortune in America. They often stayed up all night working with the “chief mucker,” Edison himself. He is sometime called the “Wizard of Menlo Park” because he created two of his three greatest works there.

The phonograph was the first machine that could record the sound of someone’s voice and play it back. In 1877, Edison recorded the first words on a piece of tin foil. He recited the nursery rhyme “Mary Had a Little Lamb,” and the phonograph played the words back to him. This was invented by a man whose hearing was so poor that he thought of himself as “deaf”!

Starting in 1878, Edison and the muckers worked on one of his greatest achievements. The electric light system was more than just the incandescent lamp, or “light bulb.” Edison also designed a system of power plants that make the electrical power and the wiring that brings it to people’s homes. Imagine all the things you “plug in.” What would your life be like without them?

In 1885, one year after his first wife died, Edison met a 20-year-old woman named Mina Miller. Her father was an inventor in Edison’s home state of Ohio. Edison taught her Morse Code. Even when others were around, the couple could “talk” to each other secretly. One day he tapped a question into her hand: would she marry him? She tapped back the word “yes.”

Mina Edison wanted a home in the country, so Edison bought Glenmont, a 29-room home with 13-1/2 acres of land in West Orange, New Jersey. They married on February 24, 1886 and had three children: Madeleine, Charles and Theodore.

A year later, Edison built a laboratory in West Orange that was ten times larger than the one in Menlo Park. In fact, it was one of the largest laboratories in the world, almost as famous as Edison himself. Well into the night, laboratory buildings glowed with electric light while the Wizard and his “muckers” turned Edison’s dreams into inventions. Once, the “chief mucker” worked for three days straight, taking only short naps. Edison earned half of his 1,093 patents in West Orange.

But Edison did more than invent. Here Edison could think of ways to make a better phonograph, for example, build it with his muckers, have them test it and make it work, then manufacture it in the factories that surrounded his laboratory. This improved phonograph could then be sold throughout the world.

Not only did Edison improve the phonograph several times, but he also worked on X-rays, storage batteries, and the first talking doll. At West Orange he also worked on one of his greatest ideas: motion pictures, or “movies.” The inventions made here changed the way we live even today. He worked here until his death on October 18, 1931, at the age of 84.

By that time, everyone had heard of the “Wizard” and looked up to him. The whole world called him a genius. But he knew that having a good idea was not enough. It takes hard work to make dreams into reality. That is why Edison liked to say, “Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration.”

ALBERT EINSTEIN’ s BIOGRAPHY

Biography

Questions and Answers on Albert Einstein

Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879. Six weeks later the family moved to Munich, where he later on began his schooling at the Luitpold Gymnasium. Later, they moved to Italy and Albert continued his education at Aarau, Switzerland and in 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss citizenship and, as he was unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905 he obtained his doctor’s degree.

During his stay at the Patent Office, and in his spare time, he produced much of his remarkable work and in 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne. In 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich, in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post. In 1914 he was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton*. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945.

After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement, he was offered the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he declined, and he collaborated with Dr. Chaim Weizmann in establishing the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Einstein always appeared to have a clear view of the problems of physics and the determination to solve them. He had a strategy of his own and was able to visualize the main stages on the way to his goal. He regarded his major achievements as mere stepping-stones for the next advance.

At the start of his scientific work, Einstein realized the inadequacies of Newtonian mechanics and his special theory of relativity stemmed from an attempt to reconcile the laws of mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. He dealt with classical problems of statistical mechanics and problems in which they were merged with quantum theory: this led to an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light with a low radiation density and his observations laid the foundation of the photon theory of light.

In his early days in Berlin, Einstein postulated that the correct interpretation of the special theory of relativity must also furnish a theory of gravitation and in 1916 he published his paper on the general theory of relativity. During this time he also contributed to the problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics.

In the 1920’s, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in America. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology.

After his retirement he continued to work towards the unification of the basic concepts of physics, taking the opposite approach, geometrisation, to the majority of physicists.

Einstein’s researches are, of course, well chronicled and his more important works include Special Theory of Relativity (1905), Relativity (English translations, 1920 and 1950), General Theory of Relativity (1916), Investigations on Theory of Brownian Movement (1926), and The Evolution of Physics (1938). Among his non-scientific works, About Zionism (1930), Why War? (1933), My Philosophy (1934), and Out of My Later Years (1950) are perhaps the most important.

Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities. During the 1920’s he lectured in Europe, America and the Far East and he was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies throughout the world. He gained numerous awards in recognition of his work, including the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1925, and the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1935.

Einstein’s gifts inevitably resulted in his dwelling much in intellectual solitude and, for relaxation, music played an important part in his life. He married Mileva Maric in 1903 and they had a daughter and two sons; their marriage was dissolved in 1919 and in the same year he married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal, who died in 1936. He died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey.

From Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901-1921, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1967

This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.